Huainan: the end of the dukedom, the third King of Huainan han was sentenced to treason
Dialogue, spanning two thousand years;Encounter, Sima Qian password.”Seek for treason, still father and son subjured country again, each do not end its body, laugh for the world.”Sima Qian in “Records of the Grand Historian” in volume 118 mainly described liu Bang’s son Liu Chang, and his grandson Liu an, Liu Bo three things, father and son in Huainan conspired to rebel, resulting in the second subjugate, are not the end of their days, but by the world’s ridicule.In 196 BC, the King of Huainan made rebellion.Han Gaozu Liu Bang conferred huainan territory on his youngest son Liu Chang.In 174 BC, Liu Chang was sentenced to treason and exiled to Shu by Emperor Wen of Han for “disobeying the laws of his predecessors and disobeying the imperial edict”.Liu Chang starved to death in exile.Although Liu Chang was dead, he still left four sons aged seven or eight.”In the eighth year of Xiaowen (172 BC), Liu Heng, emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty, bestowed the title of marquis on his four nephews.In 164 BC, Emperor Liu Heng divided Huainan into three parts and conferred three titles on the three sons of Liu Chang. Liu An became king of Huainan, Liu Bo became king of Hengshan, and Liu Ci became king of Lujiang.Among them, Liu Liang died in dongcheng.If It is true that Liu chang was proud and undisciplined, it is doubtful that he intended to rebel.First, “seventy men and other men plotted with Prince Chaiwu of Qitpu, and rode on forty chariot to rebel against Gukou”. Seventy men and forty chariots dared to rebel. Could this be a long-planned rebellion?Second, the writing style of the biographies of King Li of Huainan is completely different from other biographies.The identification of the crime of conspiracy against Liu Chang by the minister presented a profile record of the document, led by the prime minister Zhang Cang courtsmen suggested punishment to the Emperor.Third, Emperor Wen of The Han dynasty probably felt guilty about the death of Liu Chang, so Sima Qian mentioned many times “pity the King of Huainan”, and Liu Chang’s rebellion did not lead to the execution of the whole house.The fiefland of Huainan was probably not good in feng shui, just like the fiefland of Zhao during the reign of Empress Lu. There were three successive Kings of Zhao (Hidden King Liu Ruyi, Gongwang King Liu Hui, and You King Liu You, all three of whom were sons of Liu Bang).They all died violently.The King of Huainan, tsingbo rebelled in the 11th year of Emperor Gaozu of han Dynasty (201 BC) and was pacified.Liu Chang was sentenced to treason and died in exile.Liu an was also determined to commit suicide by Gongsun Hong and Zhang Tang.Liu Ci was also convicted of conspiracy.Why could Liu Bo, also the son of Liu Chang, escape the misfortune of rebellion?Xiao Jing three years (that is, 154 years before), the seven states of Wu and Chu rebellion, “The King of Hengshan firmly guard no two minds”.Therefore, the following year, Liu Bo went to Beijing to pay a pilgrimage. Emperor Jingdi of the Han Dynasty transferred Liu Bo from the low-lying and wet Hengshan to the king of Jibei.At the same time, liu Ci, king of Lujiang, was changed to The king of Hengshan. Lujiang’s territory was close to South Yue, and liu Ci was worried that he might collude with South Yue to cause chaos.How was Liu Ci, king of Hengshan, judged to be plotting rebellion?Let’s follow Sima Qian’s account to see the hidden story.Sima Qian’s introduction of Liu Ci is different from that of Liu An. He introduces Liu An from his interests, while he introduces liu Ci from his family members.Liu Ci’s first queen was Cheng Shu, who had three children, the eldest liu Shuang, the second liu Xiao, and the daughter Liu Wucai.Liu Ci also had a pet concubine, Xu Lai, who had four children;She gave birth to two sons.”When The queen Chen Shu died, she made Xu Lai queen.After Chen Shu’s death, Liu CAI appointed Xu Lai as his queen, and At the same time, Juji was favored.However, Xu Lai, Jue Ji two women contend for favor and can not get along, “Jue Ji is evil queen Xu lai prince”, Jue Ji to prince Liu Shuang said that Xu Lai instigating the slave with witch trick killed by shu.Liu Shuang hated Xu Lai for killing his mother. “The crown prince hated Xu Lai.”When Xu Lai’s elder brother came to Hengshan for a visit, liu Shuang, the crown prince, accompanied him to drink. Liu Shuang stabbed Xu Lai’s elder brother after drinking.”Xu Lai was angry and destroyed the prince several times.” Xu Lai was extremely resentful of Liu Shuang and destroyed the prince several times in front of Liu Ci, the king of Hengshan.Liu Wucai, a sister of Liu Shuang’s mother’s compatriot, was divorced by her husband after she got married and returned home.Although Sima Qian did not specify why Liu Wucai was suspended, from the text should be too lewd in private life, “and slave rape, and guest rape”.Liu Shuang criticized his sister Liu Wucai’s water, romantic and lascivious, Liu Wucai not only did not know repentance but heart resentment, no longer with the eldest brother Liu Shuang contact, “no anger, not with prince tong”.Xu came to know this matter, on the care of Liu Wucai.Liu Wucai and elder brother Liu Xiao lost his mother as a child by shu, did not have a mother’s love, now Xu so love him, naturally stood on the side after Xu.02 Queen Xu lai’s poison scheme is called no matter gallantry, or rape or theft.”The queen to plot love, together with the destruction of the prince, the king to beat the crown prince”, Xu Lai clever trick to win over Liu Wucai, Liu Xiao, together in front of the king of Hengshan to slander the crown prince, Liu Chai repeatedly flogging prince Liu Shuang.In the fourth year of Yuanshuo (that is, 125 BC), someone stabbed Xu Lai’s “false mother” (stepmother). The king of Hengshan suspected that the act was done by the prince’s agent and flogged the prince.When Liu Ci had finished his son’s killing, he was angry and tired and fell ill.When his father was ill, as the eldest son, he should treat his father with medicine and send his best wishes, but “the prince said he was ill.”This gave Xu lai the opportunity to slander.”Xiao, the queen, wucai evil prince: ‘Taizi is not sick, he says he is sick, he looks happy’,” Liu Xiao, Xu Lai, Liu Wucai three people in unison, “Liu Shuang is not sick, he is talking and laughing all day long, in good spirits!”Of course, “happy” can also be understood as the prince is looking forward to the early death of King Hengshan, can inherit the throne.Hearing this, Liu Ci was furious and wanted to dethrone Liu Shuang and make Liu Xiao crown prince.”When the queen knew that the king had decided to depose the crown prince, she also wanted to depose filial piety.” When Liu Ci deposed Liu Shuang, Xu Lai was very happy, but she hoped to depose her son Liu Guang together with Liu Xiao. “She wanted to depose her brother and appoint her son Guang as crown prince”.”The queen has a waiter who is good at dancing and the king is lucky.” Xu Lai has a maid at his side who is very good at dancing and loved by the king of Hengshan.”The queen wants the servant and xiao to mess with her.” Xu lai wants the maid to commit adultery with Liu Xiao and then label him as incestuous.So Liu Xiao could not be crown prince.When Liu Shuang learned that Xu Lai let maids and Liu Xiao incest, he knew that Xu lai in front of the King of Hengshan repeatedly slandering himself and endless.Liu Shuang decided to “treat xu lai with his own style” and decided to have sexual intercourse with Xu Lai to keep it quiet.”When the queen drinks, the crown prince wishes to have a birthday, because he wants to lie down with the queen.” At the banquet hosted by Xu Lai, Liu Shuang stood up and went to make a toast in front of Xu Lai, taking the opportunity to sit on Xu Lai’s lap and ask to sleep with her.This scene is like ah Q courtship, “I want to sleep with you, I want to sleep with you”.Xu lai listened to this as startled as Wu Ma, but Xu lai did not run away like Wu Ma swearing, but embellished to tell the King of Hengshan Liu Ci, “the queen angry, to tell the king.”‘Brute!Liu Ci was so angry that he ordered Liu Shuang to come and be bound up and beaten again.Liu Shuang summoned Liu Ci and said bluntly, “Liu Xiao has committed adultery with one of your maids, and Liu Wucai has committed adultery with a house slave. Your Majesty should try to eat some food, and if you are strong enough to do so, you should write a letter to expose them.”Then he turned and left.Liu Ci immediately sent men to chase after the prince, but no one could dissuade him. Dragging his body, Liu Ci had to chase after the prince himself and brought him back.Liu Shuang was captured after the mouth gibberish, the King of Hengshan can only put him in the palace.Liu2 ci2 cannot handle brotherly relation already, cannot solve family contradiction properly again, he is ambitious unexpectedly, intend to rebel to cause chaos?!@qipin Grass people have doubts about this, and sima Qian introduced Liu Ci to his family as a starting point to have a bold guess, perhaps Sima Qian hinted that Liu Ci rebellion does not exist.Then he took a step back and thought, “Father and son are soldiers in battle, fighting tiger brothers.” If Liu Ci really wanted to rebel, how could he allow his children to fight among themselves, instead of uniting together to rebel together?04 Liu Ci side no one can use “Yuan Guang six years, the King of Hengshan into the court, its ye Wei Qing has a prescription, to write to the son of Heaven.”In 129 BC, Liu Ci went to Beijing to pay homage to wei Qing, the “ye”, who wanted to work for emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty.If Wei Qing won the trust of Emperor Wudi by using fang Shu, it was tantamount to placing one of his own men beside the emperor, which would be beneficial rather than harmful for rebellion.Secondly, the technique can interfere with normal political life and create conditions for rebellion.In view of the above two points, The King of Hengshan should strongly support Wei Qing to Beijing is, but Liu CAI did just the opposite, “Wang anger, so he impeach Qing capital crimes, strong list and submit”, expose Wei Qing guilty of capital crimes, through torture, forced him to confess.The case was rejected by the history of Hengshan, refused to accept the judgment of Liu Ci.Liu Ci then filed a lawsuit against Neishi, who pointed out the injustice of Liu Ci’s handling of the case and exposed liu Ci’s illegal acts of forcibly taking people’s land and destroying other people’s cemeteries to make land.Thus it can be seen that the king of Hengshan side almost no credit officials, from ye to the history of internal unexpectedly do not listen to orders.On the basis of these facts, the relevant departments demanded that King Hengshan be arrested and brought to justice.However, Emperor Wudi did not give approval, “for the placement of more than 200 shi”, only re-appointed hengshan more than 200 shi officials.This further reduced the power of King Hengshan.”The king of Hengshan has given angrily to him.” Liu Was very upset and discontented with this, so he discussed with Xi Ci and Zhang Guangchang and went around to recruit people who were proficient in military tactics and celestial observations.Egged on by them, Liu Began to prepare for rebellion.It seems reasonable that Liu Ci was reduced by Emperor Wudi of The Han Dynasty and then rebelled against him.However, the appointment power of the two hundred Stone officials was in the hands of Emperor Wudi. Who else could Liu Ci rely on for rebellion? What could he prepare for rebellion?Is Liu Ci’s rebellion known to all?After Liu shuang was detained, “[Liu] became more and more filial”.The king of Hengshan took a look at Liu Xiao’s talent, “it is with the king’s seal, the number is general, so that the house outside, give more money, attract guests”, give Liu Xiao seal and title general, let him move to live outside, and give a lot of money, used to recruit guests gatekeeper.”Guest, micro know Huainan, Hengshan have counterplan”, recruit guests, secretly detect huainan king and Hengshan king have rebellion plan, also constantly encourage advocate.The king of Huainan and the king of Hengshan intended to rebel too obviously, and the guests were widely aware of the plot, rebellion and so much fanfare?After all, hengshan kingdom two hundred stone officials are appointed by emperor Wudi, so do not worry about being informed against by officials?King Hengshan sent Liu Xiao’s henchmen Jiuhe and Chen Xi to make army-carriages, cast arrowheads, and carved the seal of the son of Heaven and the official seal of generals and officials.Liu Ci also stepped up the recruitment of strong men like Zhou Qiu, and praised and cited Wu Chu’s rebellion strategy for many times to standardize his own rebellion plan.The king of Hengshan did not dare to emulate the king of Huainan hoping to usurp the throne of the emperor, just worried about huainan after the king of Huainan easily annexed Hengshan country, hope that after the king of Huainan to the west, his troops pacify and occupy the Yangtze River and huaihe river, the desire is so.Sima Qian here contradicts himself.If “The King of Hengshan dare to effect huainan king for the throne of heaven”, then the King of Hengshan “engraved seal of Heaven” is for who?If the desire is only between the Huai River and huainan, why rebel?What about the prosecution of king Huainan?Moreover, “The brothers of King Hengshan and King Huainan are responsible for each other’s etiquette, but they can’t be with each other”. Sima Qian had already told liu Ci when introducing his family affairs. Liu Ci and Liu An blamed each other for their lack of etiquette, and the two sides had bad blood and could not be reconciled.Of course, sima Qian here has another sentence, “King Hengshan heard the king of Huai Nan as a rebel, but also the guests in mind to respond, afraid of its and”, since the king of Hengshan and The King of Huai Nan brothers are not at peace, but also worried about being annexed, it may be more loyal to expose the king of Huai Nan rebellion, similar to Liu Bo.”Yuanshuo five years (i.e. 124 years ago) autumn, The King of Hengshan reign”, this year it is the turn of the King of Hengshan to Beijing to see the Son of Heaven.”Huainan, Huainan wang Nai Kundi language, in addition to the front gap, constraints on the contrary”, passing through Huainan visited brother Liu An, Liu an said a lot of brotherly love between the words, talk to forget the past, and concluded the treaty of cooperation.King Hengshan to emperor Wudi said he asked for leave due to illness, Emperor Wudi approved Liu Ci later do not need to go to Beijing to see the ceremony.In the sixth year of Yuanshuo (123 years ago), the king of Hengshan sent a letter to depose prince Shuang and establish Xiao as prince. In the second year, Liu Sent a letter to request the exemption of Liu Shuang’s qualifications as prince and let Liu Xiao be established as prince.”Cool smell, even if the good white win chang ‘an on the letter”, Liu Shuang learned that immediately sent a friend White win straight to Chang ‘an on the emperor.”The words of filial piety 輣 car cluster arrow, and the king of the royal rape, to defeat the filial piety”, played in the book Liu Shuang exposed the liu Xiao weapon, and the father and the king’s maid adultery, want to corrupt Liu Xiao.White win to Chang ‘an, have not had time to play the book to send up, “to huainan department”, by the King of Huainan conspiracy involved and imprisoned.When the king of Hengshan heard that Liu Shuang had sent Bai Ying to Chang ‘an to complain, he was afraid to tell his side of the scandal, so he immediately sent a letter to emperor Wudi of han, saying that liu Shuang, the crown prince, should be abandoned from the market and executed for his crimes of treason.”Under Pei Jun zhi”, the case was handed over to Pei Jun for trial.”In the winter of the first year of the Yuan Dynasty (122 BC), there was a minister in Xiabei County to seek arrest and the rebels in Huainan failed.” At this time, the calendar of October as the first month was still followed, and the “winter” should be the second month, November.Huainan king Liu an rebellion incident, the relevant department requires each district to search for criminals related to this case, this order was issued to pei County.”Chen Xi in hengshan king son filial piety home, the officials impeach filial piety first nab xi,” Chen Xi from liu Ci son Liu Xiao home caught, the relevant departments impeach Liu Xiao has the crime of hiding.Chen Xi was a guest recruited by Liu Xiao under the orders of his father. He and Jiu He were responsible for making weapons for chariots, carving the seal of the Emperor, etc., and were familiar with Liu Ci’s rebellion plan.Liu Xiao was worried that Chen Xi would confess to the crime, “lest he be punished by the law, he would be cleared of his crime first.” He thought that the law stipulated that voluntary surrender could exempt him from punishment.Therefore, Liu Xiao tried to excuse himself, so he voluntarily surrendered and testified against Jiuhe, Chen Xi and others involved in the rebellion.As the trial result of tingwei found that the evidence was conclusive, “Gongqing requested the arrest of King Hengshan to govern him”, so the ministers requested emperor Wudi of han to order the arrest of King Hengshan for trial.At that time, the chief officer was zhang Tang, a cruel officer, so “conclusive evidence” is almost beyond doubt.When Zhang Tang requested the arrest of King Hengshan, emperor Wudi issued an edict: “Don’t arrest him and put him in prison.”Is it possible that Emperor Wudi of Han spared King Liu Ci of Hengshan out of compassion?Not too!”I sent lieutenant An and Da Xing Xi to ask the king, and the king was honest and sincere.” Emperor Wudi of Han sent lieutenant Sima an and Da Xing Li Xi to interrogate King Hengshan face to face. King Liu Ci of Hengshan immediately confessed all the facts.”The officials all surrounded the palace and guard it,” the judicial department immediately surrounded the king of Hengshan’s residence.Lieutenant Daxing returned to Chang ‘an and reported the interrogation to Emperor Wudi.All the officials of the imperial court unanimously requested that zong Zheng, who was in charge of royal affairs, daxing, who was in charge of ethnic affairs, and the governor of Pei County come to judge King Hengshan together.First, the trial was conducted by tingwei, who was in charge of the judiciary, and then let lieutenant and da Xing take charge of the case. Did Emperor Wudi not believe tingwei or King Hengshan was plotting a rebellion?What did the king of Hengshan say to lieutenant Daxing?Why did the court officials request “King Zongzheng, King Daxing and King Peijun Zazhi (Joint interrogation)”?When Sima Qian finished the Records of the Grand Historian, Emperor Wudi was still in power, so the records must conform to the “historical facts”, and the Kings of Huainan and Hengshan were convicted of treason and could not be changed.”The king heard that he had killed himself.”After hearing this, The King of Hengshan immediately committed suicide by rubbing his neck.Liu Xiao may be exempted from punishment if he surrenders himself and reports meritorious deeds.However, he was sentenced to death for adultery with his father and maidservant, incest and unfilial piety.Xu Lai wu killed the former queen Take Shu, was sentenced to death.Liu Shuang denounced her father as unfilial and was sentenced to death.For interactive discussion, please follow @qipin caomin.Code word is not easy, do not copy.