Three applications, analyze the application prospect of glycomics

2022-05-20 0 By

Editor’s note: Compared to proteins and nucleic acids, our research on polysaccharides is still in its infancy.However, a growing number of studies have shown that a rich variety of polysaccharides play a role in a variety of biological functions, from immune regulation to antiviral, to blood sugar regulation and tumor resistance.In the future, glycoomics may be the next omics after genomics and proteomics.Today, we’re going to focus on glycoomics.Hope this article can bring some inspiration and help to the relevant industry personage and readers.Glycan is involved in a number of key biological processes, such as maintaining tissue elasticity, fighting pathogens and regulating the immune system.Because they play a role in many biological functions, and new functions are being discovered all the time, researchers are increasingly interested in glycoomics, the collection of all the polysaccharides in a cell, and looking to use it to develop new diagnostic methods.A polysaccharide is a complex structure composed of simple sugars linked together.The human genome contains about 25, 000 protein-coding genes, while the human glycoomics contains millions of different glycan species.Glycan structures change in response to environmental stimuli, such as pH, hormonal stimulation, and inflammation.The glycoomics of a cell reflects the various events occurring within the cell at the molecular level.Using this great diversity of glycans, highly specific diagnostic methods can be developed to provide very detailed information.Application 1: Glycans in inflammation and immunity can be linked to other molecules, such as lipids and proteins, through a process called glycosylation.The glycation pattern seen in our cells has long been known to play a key role in keeping the immune system healthy and maintaining an inflammatory response.Thus, detecting changes in glycation patterns provides valuable insights into the development of a range of diseases.”Since protein glycosylation is a dynamic process that takes place constantly in the body, it can reflect its current state and can be used to monitor the development of the disease as well as personalize treatments,” said Avenna CEO Nina Skorytchenko.Avenna, a UK startup, is currently developing glycomic tests for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic inflammation and life-threatening levels of inflammation susceptible to COVID-19 infection.Avenna’s IBD biomarker method measures glycomic data to predict which patients need more treatment.”It can be used together with other omics data in the development of strategies for treatment management to reduce disease and recurrence rates, reduce patient visits, investigations and hospitalizations, improve quality of life, delay the accumulation of intestinal injury, and make it possible to personalize IBD treatment management,” Skorytchenko said.An antibody is a typical example of a polysaccharide – modified protein.Looking at the glycosylation pattern of antibodies gives a better idea of disease progression than just looking at antibody levels.For example, while antibody levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) indicate immunity, its glycan reveals specific information about the inflammation the antibody is fighting.”IgG is responsible for the recognition, neutralization and elimination of pathogens and toxic antigens,” Skorytchenko added. “The glycan that modifies this molecule gives it more complexity, thus regulating its function.This provides valuable information about an individual’s current health — specifically, how inflammatory the body is.”Application 2: Glycan changes produced by glycan cells as tumor markers are one of the markers of cancer.Many clinically approved cancer biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for colon cancer, are glycoproteins.That’s why startups and researchers are adding glycomics to the list of tools for cancer detection.However, traditional diagnostic methods usually focus on the protein part of the glycoprotein, which may lead to poor specificity in cancer diagnosis.Tomas Bertok, co-founder and CHIEF executive of Glycanostics, said: “If someone has elevated LEVELS of CEA in their blood, they could be a heavy smoker or they could have cancer.The cancer could be colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer or breast cancer, which we don’t know for sure because the marker is not tissue specific.”Glycanostics, a Slovakian biotechnology company, is using the diversity of glycans to develop non-invasive methods for early cancer diagnosis.The company’s diagnostic kits can detect breast and prostate cancer by measuring changes in the amount of glycans in the blood for specific antigens.”Polysaccharides have enormous combinatorial potential to encode biological information.Therefore, adding these analyses to commonly used tests may greatly increase the accuracy of current diagnostics.The biggest value is in providing a combination of different marker types for diagnostic algorithms — we’re using polysaccharides, proteins and some other clinical and biological data.”Application 3: Detecting pathogens with Glycans When pathogens attack our cells, immune cells are able to detect glycans on their surfaces in order to recognize and destroy them.However, to evade the immune system, bacteria often mimic the production of glycans on host cells.Therefore, analyzing glycans on bacterial surfaces may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.FluroretiQ, a British biomedical startup, combines nanomaterials with optical sensing technology to quantify the glycan of pathogenic bacteria.Notably, the company can identify common bacteria associated with urinary tract infections in 15 minutes.James Preece, FluoretiQ product Manager, explains: “Glycan plays a crucial role in the cell-to-cell recognition of infection, and it is through the recognition of glycan characteristics that bacteria can recognize, adhere to and colonize host tissues for infection.”Polysaccharides have commercial advantages over protein-based diagnostic methods.”They are much cheaper to manufacture than their protein-based counterparts, can be modified at any time, and are more stable at room temperature,” Preece added.Beyond diagnostics, new insights into glycomics are furthering the development of therapies that use synthetic sugars to control immune responses and inflammation.Like genomics and proteomics before it, the success of the emerging field of glycoomics will depend on our ability to quantify glycans and glycopeptides cheaply and quickly.”Complex glycans have been neglected in previous biomedical research simply because we don’t have the technology to analyze them,” Bertok said.We have these technologies now, but they take a long time and are extremely expensive.We are managing to do these glycan analyses on a laboratory table in a few hours.”This shift to fast and low-cost desktop devices is key to the next evolution of the space.The original link: author | SACHIN RAWAT 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