The Popuros won the war, if not for the people for whom?

2022-05-03 0 By

Caesar is a perfect man, because he is more than others in the trend of The Times, and because he more than others with the main characteristics of the Roman nation, that is, the true ability to be a citizen;Even his Hellenism was only the Hellenism which had long been intimately mixed with the Italian national character.But therein lies the difficulty, if not the impossibility, of rendering Caesar lifelike.Artists can paint everything, but not perfect beauty, so historians can only be silent when they meet a perfect person.For the model may be spoken of, but it gives us only the opposite idea of faultless;In the fullest manifestations of nature, the model is one with the character. This is the mystery of nature, and no words can describe it.We can only congratulate those who have seen the perfect man, and derive a vague idea from the undying light that shone upon this great man for his career.These undertakings are certainly of The Times.The Hero of Rome was himself not only on an equal footing with his younger Greek predecessor, but on top of it;But at the same time the world has grown old, and the glory of its youth has faded.Caesar’s activities were no longer, as Alexander’s were, joyfully pursuing an infinitely distant object;Caesar used the old material to operate on the ruins of the building, in order to do as much as possible in the broad but limited space has been determined, and secure and comfortable arrangement.Why, of course, the elegant poetry of nations left out the unpoetical Roman, and threw upon Philip’s son all the golden splendour of poetry, and all the rainbow of legend.But of course the political life of the nations has, for thousands of years, often returned to the lines drawn by Caesar;To this day, some of the nations that rule the world still call their most exalted monarch by his name, and there is a significant but unfortunate and shameful warning in it.The country must first be restored to its peace, and the earth must be swept clean of the debris that has been everywhere since the recent events, if the old and unprofitable state can be abolished.Caesar proceeded on the principle of reconciliating the parties, or, to put it more correctly — since their ideas could not reconcile, no real reconciliation could be possible — that the nobles and the pleb should leave the field of battle on which they had always been engaged, and that the parties should meet on the ground of the new monarchy.The first thing, therefore, was to dismiss and never reopen all the old disputes of the old Republican days.Capital hear law salus war of the masses, then push back sulla carved like, Caesar is pull them up again, now so admit one thing, the only history with on-site trial that great man, at the same time, he also eliminate sura special legal legacy, called also in cinna and Selma torrey uz confusion of exile, return the voting rights have been lost to the city children deprived of human rights.Likewise, during the brewing of the recent troubles, many persons who had lost their senatorial seats or citizenship due to prosecutions by censors or politicians, especially by impeachment under the special law of 702, that is, 52 BC, have all been restored.Only those who kill aliens for money are condemned, of course;Milo, the senate’s bravest mercenary leader, was not included in the amnesty.It was far more difficult to deal with the two opposing parties of the day — Caesar’s own Populist party on the one hand, and the party of the overthrown aristocracy on the other.It is self-evident that the former was more unforgiving than the latter in his conduct after victory, and in his request to renounce the old positions of his party.It is probable that what Caesar himself desired was the result of what Gaius Gracchus intended;But the Caesar plan was no longer the Gracchus plan.The Populist had been forced gradually to pass from reform to revolution, from revolution to insurrection, from insurrection to war against ownership;They celebrated and commemorated the politics of terror among themselves, and adorned the tomb of Catiline with flowers and wreaths, which had formerly adorned the tomb of Gracchus Kunzhong;They fell under Caesar’s wing because they expected him to do for them what Catiline could not.But when it soon became apparent that Caesar would not carry out Catiline’s will, and that the debtors could expect nothing more from him than relief of debts and relief of proceedings, angry people began to ask: The Populist had won the war, if not for the people, for whom?These ronin men, great and small, out of indignation at the failure of the political and economic Saturnalia, first courted Pompey, and then, during nearly two years of Caesar’s absence from Italy (January 706 — 707 — autumn 47 BC), incited a civil war within a civil war.Marcus Callius Rufus, the viceconsul, better a nobleman than a debtor, a man of slight ability and cultivation, a fiery and fluent orator, had been one of Caesar’s most ardent advocates in the Senate and in the Roman forum;He first proposed to the people, without the order of his lordship, a law granting debtors six years’ suspension of payment without interest, and then, when opposed, another, abolishing all claims to loans and prevailing rents;So the Caesar Senate removed him from office.This was on the eve of the Battle of Pharsalus, which seemed to favor Pompey;Rufus colluded with milo, the old leader of the Senate Party, and they planned a counter-revolution, one side of the republic regime, one side of the cancellation of claims and the emancipation of slaves.Milo left marseilia, his home of exile, and called upon the Pompeians and herdsmen of Tuli to rise;Rufus is going to take capua with armed slaves.But this latter plan was discovered before it could be carried out and destroyed by capua’s militia;Quintus Pedius marched into Turi with a regiment, crushing the horde that stood there;The death of the two leaders put an end to the chaos (706, 48 BC).In spite of this, in the following year (707, 47 BC) a fool, Publius Dolabella, the Tribune, who was as insolvent as Rufus, but far less talented, revived his law concerning claims and rents,And with his colleague Lucius Trebelius to wage another — for the last time — battle of the People;The armies of the two sides fought violently against each other, and there were many riots in the streets, till marcus Antony, the General of Italy, ordered his troops to intervene, and soon after Caesar, returning from the East, put an end to this folly.Caesar thought so little of these foolishness as to restore catiline’s plan that Dolabella dwelt in Italy, and, after a time, returned to her favour.These rascals are not interested in any political question, but in a war against ownership, which is as good for them as it is for bandits, with a strong government;The cowards of Italy were terrified of the communists of the day, but Caesar was too great and too thoughtful to care, and to win the false affection of his people for his monarchy.Thus, the division of the old Populet was almost extreme, and Caesar could and had allowed it to be divided;On the other hand, the Old Party had a far greater vitality, and Caesar oppressed and consoled it with equal measures, not to cause its dissolution, as only time can do, but to open the way for its dissolution, and to draw it in.To take the smallest thing, Caesar, by a natural sense of propriety, refrained from upsetting the defeated party with gratuitous sarcasm;He did not return in triumph over his fellow countrymen;He always spoke of Pompey, always with respect. When the senate synagogue was restored, he ordered that the statue of Pompey in it be restored to its former place of honor.After the victory came political prosecutions, and Caesar made its limits as narrow as they could be.The Constitutionalist party, too, had connections with the party which had been called Caesar, which he had let go;In the headquarters of Pharsalus and Tapusus there were so many papers that Caesar threw them on the fire without looking at them, to prevent himself and his country from bringing political proceedings against the suspects of state affairs.Moreover, the common soldiers who had fought with the Roman generals or local officers against Caesar were exonerated.Exceptions were made for Roman citizens who had served in the army of Juba, king of Numidian, and their property was confiscated as punishment for treason.Until the end of the Spanish war in 705, 49 BC, Caesar granted unlimited pardons even to officers of the defeated party;But he began to feel that this was too much, and that at least the removal of their leader was inevitable.He followed the principle that if he were still alive at the end of the war, he would lose his property and his right to vote, and be banished for life from the borders of Italy;If by the end of the war he was no longer alive, at least his property was forfeited;But if they had been spared by Caesar, and afterwards found in the service of the enemy, they were put to death for it.In practice, however, these principles have been greatly reduced.Many disobeyed, and only a few were actually put to death.In forfeiting the deceased’s assets, Mr. Higuchi would not only pay off the estate’s debts and Mr. Higuchi’s requests to marry, but also leave some of the father’s estate to his children.Finally, many of those who, on principle, deserved exile and forfeiture were at once completely pardoned, or, in the case of the African capitalists who had been drawn into the Senate of Utica, punished.The rest, with few exceptions, shall regain their liberty and property, if they shall petition Caesar;Some, such as marcus Marcellus, the former consul, refused to do this, and were pardoned without asking;Finally, in 710, 44 BC, a general pardon was issued for all who had not yet been summoned.